March 17, 2008

Artificial Intelligence Technologies, CSN-2008, JIET

Filed under: 02 Artificial Intelligence, NIL - All Posts — myreaders @ 10:17 am

Artificial Intelligence Technologies, CSN-2008, JIET

A paper presented in National Conference on Communication Systems and Networking, on March 15 -16, 2008, at Jaypee Institute of Engineering & Technology (JIET), Guna, by R C Chakraborty, Visiting Prof. JIET, Guna & Former Dir. DTRL & ISSA (DRDO). The Highlights of the presentation on Artificial intelligence technologies are :

(a) AI definitions – The term Artificial Intelligence(AI) was coined in 1950s. It is about creation of machines that perform tasks that, if performed by a human, would require intelligence. It is unique, sharing borders with mathematics, computer science, philosophy, psychology, biology, cognitive science and many others. There is no clear definition of Artificial Intelligence or even Intelligence. It can be described as an attempt to build machines that like humans can think, act, learn and use knowledge to solve problems on their own. The definitions of AI outlined in text books are concerned with reasoning and behavior. Its success is measured in terms of human performance and concept of intelligence called rationality.  

(b) AI goals – The definitions of AI gives four possible goals to pursue for intelligent an machine : that think like humans, that think rationally, that behave like humans, that behave rationally.

(c) AI Technology timeline – The Roots of AI actually began centuries ago, long before computers. The Roman Abacus, 5000 years ago, is a machine with memory. The Pascaline, 1652, is a calculating machines that mechanized arithmetic. The Differential Engine, 1849, is a mechanical calculating machine programmable to tabulate polynomial functions. Turing machines, 1936, an abstract symbol-manipulating device, adapted to simulate the logic, is first computer invented on paper only. The Von Neumann architecture, 1945, is computer design model, has a processing unit and a shared memory structure to hold both instructions and data. The ENIAC, 1946, called Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator is the first electronic general-purpose digital computer by Eckert & Mauchly. Thus, the development went on to finally a desktop, a laptop and more.

(d) AI events timeline – The concept of AI as a true scientific pursuit is a very young. In 1950, Turing test, by Alan Turing, is a measure of machine intelligence. The year, Norbert Wiener, observed link between human intelligence and machines, theorized intelligent behavior. In 1955, a program by Allen Newell and Herbert Simon, claimed that machines can contain minds just as human bodies do, proved 38 of the first 52 theorems in Principia Mathematica. In 1956, was the birth of AI, at Dartmouth Summer Research Conference on Artificial Intelligence, organised by John McCarthy regarded as the father of AI. Since then AI began to pick up momentum and the centers for AI research began forming at Carnegie Mellon and MIT and later in other institutions & laboratories.

(e) AI transition from Lab to real world – The impact of AI and the computer technology were felt. Foundations like “American Association for Artificial Intelligence started”. The demand for AI development, pushed the researchers to join 150 private companies. In 1986, AI based hardware, cost $425 million, sold to companies. In 1991, AI military systems put to test in war, during ‘Desert Strom’. Now the adaptation of AI is every where that need no specific mention.

(f) AI sub disciplines – A few as multi-agent systems, cognitive modeling and human interaction, commonsense reasoning , evolutionary computation, game playing and interactive entertainment, knowledge representation and reasoning, machine learning and data mining, planning and scheduling, robotics, search, semantic web, vision and perception.

(h) AI future in next quarter century – Trying to build a system that is equal or better than a human, on general tasks. The goal of AI is :

  1. Building machine on the model of man, a robot to have its childhood, learn language as a child does, gain knowledge by sensing the world through its own organs, and ultimately contemplate the whole domain of human thought.
  2. Building useful applications, restricted to a particular domain, specific tasks, e.g. an autonomous vehicle, speech recognition system and many more.

Conclusion – Despite the advances in the last 50 years, the original goals set by the first generation of AI visionaries have not been reached. The natural intelligence is far from being understood, while the artificial forms of intelligence is still very primitive. Simple tasks like object manipulation and recognition, which a 3-year-old baby can do, have not yet been realized artificially. (Ref : 50th Anniversary Summit of Artificial Intelligence, Centro Steno Franscini – Monte Verita Switzer Land, July 9-14, 2006).

For complete lecture slides move on to Website URL :


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